Publishing Policy

FACETS is published by Canadian Science Publishing. This Publishing Policy outlines the editorial and production policies and defines ethical publication guidelines for FACETS. If you have any questions about this document contact us at


Canadian Science Publishing is a not-for-profit federally incorporated publishing company. It owns and publishes scientific and engineering journals. This document sets out the Publishing Policy for the multidisciplinary open access science journal FACETS.


The objective of Canadian Science Publishing is to publish high-quality scientific and engineering journals. The research journals published by Canadian Science Publishing provide scientists and engineers in Canada and around the world with a means to communicate with their peers in the international research community. The Editors and Canadian Science Publishing are committed to producing high-quality international publications, thereby making a Canadian contribution to the world's research literature.


Since the Canadian Journal of Research was launched in 1929, numerous editorial practices and procedures have been developed on the basis of time-honoured traditions of the various disciplines. Canadian Science Publishing follows the best current practices, and where possible, improves on them. This document reviews and formalizes the editorial and production policies and defines ethical publication guidelines for the Canadian Science Publishing journal FACETS. Adherence to these policies will protect the integrity of the publication process and the reputation of Canadian Science Publishing as a publisher.


The policies outlined in this document are intended to cover all aspects of FACETS.

This document begins with a description of editorial and ethical principles, followed by the responsibilities of authors, Editors, the Executive Editor-in-Chief, reviewers, and the publisher. The section Other policies addresses areas such as copyright and language of publication.

Editorial & Ethical Responsibilities

Editorial Autonomy

Editors are responsible for the content of articles published. In cases where Editors are concerned about the publication of specific content, they should consult with, and accept guidance from, the Executive Editor-in-Chief. The Publisher may call to the attention of Editors and the Executive Editor-in-Chief specific content that causes concern. However, the final decision and responsibility to publish any content rests with the Editors and the Executive Editor-in-Chief.

In the case of an Editor (Editor-in-Chief, Subject Editor, or Associate Editor) submitting a manuscript to FACETS, Canadian Science Publishing will ensure the anonymity of the reviewers and that the Editor (Editor-in-Chief, Subject Editor, or Associate Editor) will be completely excluded from the peer review and decision-making process, and will have no access to the records of their own manuscript in question.

Appropriate Content

Notwithstanding the foregoing, Editors should avoid publishing content that is not relevant to scientific inquiry or the scientific community, or content that would bring Canadian Science Publishing into disrepute.

Scientific Misconduct

Reviewers and Editors should use all means at their disposal to ensure that manuscripts involving scientific misconduct are discovered before publication. If such misconduct is discovered after publication, Editors should investigate allegations of misconduct, and take appropriate action, including but not limited to publishing retractions, informing the authors, and informing the authors' institution (see Editors, below).

Falsification of Data

Data published in FACETS should be obtained according to the methods indicated, and reported accurately and completely, so that the experiments or observations can be replicated by another conscientious researcher. Alteration of methods, incomplete reporting, fabrication of data, and any other measures that would lead to erroneous conclusions, are unethical.

Duplicate Publication & Plagiarism

It is unethical for authors to publish a substantial portion of their own previously published research results in another paper or monograph without acknowledgement of such republication. This may also infringe the copyright of the original publisher.

It is also unethical to use work published by another author without attribution in a paper submitted for publication; this includes not only republication of an entire paper, but also reproduction of any portion of text, equations, figures, or tables without full attribution or permission, as appropriate. Plagiarism is a serious offence, infringing the copyright of the original publisher and the moral rights of the original author.


Any person listed as an author of a paper should have contributed substantially to the conception and design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; should be involved in drafting the paper or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and should have approved the version to be published. Further, anyone contributing substantially to the research (as outlined above) should appear as an author. Including people who do not meet the criteria for authorship on the list of authors is unethical, as is omission of a person who meets the criteria for authorship.

All authors should be aware of submissions and decisions concerning papers of which they are authors.

All additional contributions to a paper should be indicated in Acknowledgements published with the paper.

Conflict of Interest

Reviewers and Editors should recuse themselves from the evaluation of papers in which they may have a real or perceived conflict of interest. Conflicts of interest may include financial interests in any aspect of a product or method under discussion, personal relationships (positive or negative) with authors, interest in competing research, or bias concerning the research.


Any paper submitted for publication that raises concern because of the potential misuse of methods, technologies or agents reported for nefarious purposes may be subject to editorial review to determine the risks and benefits to the scientific community and the public at large that may result from publication. Such review will be taken into account by the Editor(s) in making a final decision concerning publication.

For more information regarding ethical publishing practices, see The Council of Science Editors’ white paper on promoting integrity in scientific journal publications.



  1. Authors have an obligation to present an accurate account of the research performed and are responsible for complete reporting of the observations made and data collected.

  2. Authors must relate their work to that of others, clearly attributing any and all statements, equations, figures, and tables derived from others' work to their original source, and provide complete and accurate citations so that readers can objectively evaluate the paper.

  3. Authors must describe the safeguards used to meet both formal and informal standards of ethical conduct of research (approval of a research protocol by an institutional committee, procurement of informed consent, adherence to codes of ethical conduct for the treatment of human or animal subjects, and maintenance of confidentiality of personal data on patients, etc.).

  4. Authors must ensure that papers accepted for publication are free of any kind of prejudice, especially gender and racial stereotyping.

  5. Authors should avoid dividing research results into many papers, or submitting trivial reports. This practice not only multiplies the effort of editors and reviewers, but it also requires readers to search for several publications instead of one.

  6. The corresponding author must warrant that all co-authors have read and approved the manuscript as submitted. When dealing with manuscripts with more than one author, the Editor-in-Chief and Editorial Board assume that the corresponding author is authorized to respond on behalf of the group.

  7. Authors are responsible for obtaining any formal or informal approval or clearance of the paper from their institution or company before it is submitted to Canadian Science Publishing.

  8. Authors must identify the sources of all information and material obtained privately by including citations to personal communication and unpublished data.

  9. When a paper contains material (tables, figures, charts, etc.) that is protected by copyright, it is the obligation of the author to secure written permission from the copyright holder (usually the publisher). Letters of permission must be sent to the Editorial Office before final acceptance of the paper.

  10. Authors are responsible for disclosing any information that may affect the acceptance or rejection of the paper. This includes indicating whether the work has been previously presented in any format (conference proceedings, abstract publication, etc.) and submitting a list of related manuscripts that the author has in press or under consideration by another journal. The paper will be considered for publication only with the understanding that it has not already been submitted to, accepted by, or published in another journal.


  1. The journal Editor-in-Chief (hereinafter referred to as the “Editor”) is responsible for the content of their journal, its scientific calibre, and its adherence to ethical standards in scientific publishing.

  2. The Editor appoints an editorial board for the journal, subject to review by the Executive Editor-in-Chief. The form and functioning of this board is at the discretion of the Editor, but it is usually composed of Subject Editors and Associate Editors, as well as Guest Editors, who assist the Editor in assessing articles submitted for publication and act as an advisory group for the Editor as required.

  3. The Editor is appointed for a fixed renewable term by the Executive Editor-in-Chief, normally 5 years.

  4. The Editor may appoint one or more Assistant Editor(s)-in-Chief, who may assume the Editor's responsibilities during an absence. If this absence is expected to be prolonged, an Editor pro tem may be appointed by the Executive Editor-in-Chief.

  5. It is the responsibility of the Editor and the Editorial Board to ensure that papers accepted for publication meet the guidelines established for authors.

  6. The Editor and/or Editorial Board are responsible for ensuring that proper review procedures are followed and for making the final decision on acceptance or rejection of a paper. The Editor may delegate some duties to Subject, Assistant, or Associate Editors, or to a temporary Guest Editor appointed to oversee a special issue or section, but the final authority remains with the Editor.

  7. The peer review process is carried out by the Editorial Board under the direction of the Editor. When a paper is deemed appropriate for consideration for publication, arrangements are made for it to be reviewed by, typically, two reviewers.

  8. Reviewers are advisory to the Editor and Editorial Board and do not make decisions on acceptance or rejection of a paper. The name of a reviewer will only be conveyed to an author with the explicit consent of the reviewer.

  9. The Editor and/or Editorial Board must ensure that submitted papers are dealt with promptly, and that corresponding authors are notified of the receipt of the paper. The Editorial Office will ensure that the corresponding author is notified of all decisions that follow.

  10. The Editor and/or Editorial Board is responsible for ensuring that the contents of an author's paper are not divulged to anyone other than those necessarily involved in reading the paper in the Editorial Office, reviewers, and those assisting in these functions.

  11. The Editor and/or Editorial Board should give unbiased consideration to all manuscripts and should declare any potential conflict of interest, in which case the Editor or Executive Editor-in-Chief should delegate the consideration of the manuscript to another member of the Editorial Board.

  12. After acceptance of a manuscript, if further information that seems to warrant investigation is received, the Editor will regard it as an obligation to reconsider the decision.

  13. All files regarding an individual manuscript are the property of the Editorial Office and are to be retained by the Editor and/or Editorial Board or disposed of in consultation with the Executive Editor-in-Chief.

  14. The Editor and Editorial Board are responsible for carrying out and enforcing the copyright and licensing policies set by the Publisher.

  15. When notified of errors in facts or conclusions in a paper subsequent to its publication, the Editor and/or Editorial Board, after notifying the corresponding author, is responsible for initiating publication of an erratum or a report pointing out the changes.

  16. If the Editor and/or Editorial Board receive convincing evidence of plagiarism, duplicate publication, or falsification of data, the Editor must initiate publication of a retraction. The Editor must notify the Executive Editor-in-Chief as soon as possible of any serious breaches of ethical behaviour.


  1. Reviewers are advisors to the Editor and Editorial Board and should serve only in their areas of expertise. A reviewer who feels inadequately qualified to evaluate a paper should decline to review the paper.

  2. A reviewer who cannot give an unbiased opinion about a paper because of personal relationships, competing research, financial interests, etc., should declare this bias or conflict of interest to the Editor and/or Editorial Board and decline to review the paper.

  3. Reviewers must treat the paper and the review as confidential communications. If a reviewer wishes to seek expert advice from an associate, he/she should consult the Editor or the appropriate Subject Editor or Associate Editor before proceeding. The associate must also honour the confidentiality of the document.

  4. A reviewer who is unable to complete the review of a paper in an appropriate time frame should notify the Editorial Office and agree on a new deadline, or decline to review the paper.

  5. Reviewers are advisory to the Editor and Editorial Board and provide recommendations, but do not make decisions on acceptance or rejection of a paper.

  6. All statements made by the reviewer must be adequately supported so that the Editor and/or Editorial Board may make a well-informed decision regarding the paper.

  7. The reviewer should call to the attention of the Editor and/or Editorial Board any failure by an author to cite relevant work by other scientists, as well as any published or unpublished papers the reviewer is aware of that would constitute plagiarism or duplicate publication.

  8. Reviewers must ensure that reviews are written in a respectful, professional manner, and are free of any kind of prejudice, especially gender and racial stereotyping.

  9. Unpublished information, arguments, or interpretations disclosed in a submitted paper should not be used for the reviewer's own research except with the consent of the author.

Executive Editor-in-Chief

  1. The Executive Editor-in-Chief has overall responsibility for the scientific and editorial integrity of the journals published by Canadian Science Publishing.

  2. The Executive Editor-in-Chief is appointed and accountable to the Board of Canadian Science Publishing for fixed renewable terms (normally 5 years).

  3. In cases where the Executive Editor-in-Chief is not fulfilling his/her obligations as outlined in this policy, the Board of Canadian Science Publishing has the authority to terminate his/her appointment.

  4. The Editors' and Publisher's questions or concerns regarding the scientific quality of the publications, as well as ethical questions (e.g., reporting of fraudulent data, duplicate publication, submission of inappropriate material), should be referred to the Executive Editor-in-Chief.

  5. The Executive Editor-in-Chief is responsible for selecting Editors for the journals. The Executive Editor-in-Chief consults broadly and may seek advice from other Editors, from the affiliated scientific and engineering societies, and from relevant Editorial Boards regarding selection of a new Editor.

  6. In cases where Editors are not fulfilling their obligations as outlined in this policy, the Executive Editor-in-Chief has the authority to terminate appointments.

  7. The Executive Editor-in-Chief has the right of access to all files maintained by the Editors of Canadian Science Publishing publications. The Executive Editor-in-Chief may exercise this right when necessary to ensure that the policies and procedures of the Editorial Offices conform to the requirements outlined in this policy.


  1. The Publisher, represented by the Executive Director of Canadian Science Publishing, is responsible for setting policies, procedures, and guidelines, as well as for the administration and production of the journals through the Editorial and Publishing Offices.

  2. The Publisher is responsible for all financial and legal aspects of journal publication, including but not limited to copyright policy, liability, budgeting, costs, and revenue. Hence, the Publisher is responsible for decisions and policies affecting access to publications (including subscriptions and sales) and prices for such access.

  3. The Editorial and Publishing Offices must ensure the confidentiality of all papers at all stages of the publishing process. Information must not be given to persons unauthorized by the author before the publication of the paper. (News media reporters may be given information for a short period before publication, under embargo.)

  4. After a paper has been accepted for publication, the Editor or copy editor may make redactional changes as required but must not make changes to the content of a paper without consultation with the author and the Editor.

  5. The staff of the Publishing Office must alert the Editor or Executive Editor-in-Chief concerning any substantive changes requested by an author after acceptance of the paper, including changes in authorship or deletion or insertion of substantial amounts of material.

  6. The Publisher accepts no responsibility for statements or opinions expressed by a contributor in any of the Canadian Science Publishing journals (either online or in print).

Other Policies


Authors retain copyright but are required to license rights to Canadian Science Publishing under a Creative Commons CC BY license.

Publishing in Both Official Languages

FACETS publishes articles in their original language (either English or French).

Privacy Policy

The Privacy Policy for FACETS is available as a stand-alone document.