Instructions to Authors

Please refer to the instructions to authors before submitting your manuscript. These instructions are also available as a PDF download.

Les recommandations aux auteurs sont également disponible en français.

Prospective authors can keep in touch with FACETS by signing up for the FACETS newsletter.

Journal Information


FACETS is a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary science journal that will initially focus on six research areas: Biological and Life Sciences; Biomedical and Health Sciences; Earth and Environmental Sciences; Engineering, Technology, and Mathematics; Integrative Sciences (including topics such as science and policy, and science communication); and Physical Sciences. Although not officially covering Social Sciences and Humanities (SSH) topics, the Integrative Sciences section will include intersections of science and the social sciences. Additional subject categories will be added as the journal evolves in conjunction with emerging scientific advances.

FACETS will appeal to researchers studying in a variety of fields looking to publish and read multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research.

Publication Frequency

FACETS is an open access peer-reviewed journal with a continuous publication schedule wherein articles are published as soon as they are ready. Articles requiring publication at a specific time (e.g., press released content) may be an exception. The journal publishes in electronic format only.

Types of Papers

FACETS is a peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary open access science journal that publishes the following article types:

  • A research article reports a completed definitive study.

  • Review articles present a critical synthesis or overview of information on an important topic.

  • A communication is intended for the presentation of brief observations (e.g., pilot studies, new discoveries).

  • A note reports a completed project of a smaller scope.

  • A perspective is a fully referenced thought-piece that allows for the discussion of scientific concepts and the proposal of ideas (e.g., a new idea relating to an existing concept).

  • An editorial is a discussion of a current hot topic or an issue of importance in a given field.

  • A comment discusses a published article. Authors of the original article will be invited to provide a reply.

  • Science Applications Forum articles link scientific knowledge to policy, management, public interests, industry applications, etc. Most papers of this type will fall under the Integrative Sciences section (see Sections and subjects).

FACETS will accept replication studies and studies with negative results, providing that the authors clearly demonstrate the value of their findings and how the contribution advances knowledge.

Paper length (word count)

Although FACETS does not impose a strict restriction on word count, authors are strongly encouraged to be as concise as possible. FACETS does not accept monographs. Submissions for most paper types are generally expected to be between 5000 and 10,000 words. Editorials and comments should usually not exceed 1400 words. A surcharge may apply to very lengthy articles to cover the additional production costs; please contact the editorial office before submitting manuscripts in excess of 15,000 words.

Note: When assessing word counts, figures and tables of average length/size (around ¼ of a page) should be estimated as 250 words each, on average, excluding captions. Larger figures and tables should be estimated as 600 words each, on average, excluding captions.

Copyright, Licensing, & Reuse of Materials Published in FACETS

Authors publishing in FACETS do not transfer copyright to Canadian Science Publishing and are free to reuse their material without seeking permission.

Material published in FACETS is governed by the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license (CC BY 4.0) (this conforms with the licensing requirements of all major funding agencies).

Under the CC BY license, users are permitted to share (copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format) or adapt (remix, transform, and build upon) the material for commercial or non-commercial purposes, so long as appropriate credit is given to the authors and the source of the work. The license also ensures that the published material can be included in any scientific archive or repository.

To learn more about these licenses, visit the Creative Commons website. To learn more about the common funding agencies and their open access requirements, visit the NRC Research Press website.

In case of any enquiries, please contact the Editorial Office by email.

Article Processing Charges

The article processing charge for all paper types except Comments, invited Replies, and Editorials is $1350 CAD plus applicable taxes for researchers in Canada and $1350 USD for researchers outside Canada (no taxes apply). The article processing charge for Comments and Editorials is $500 CAD plus applicable taxes for researchers in Canada and $500 USD for researchers outside Canada (no taxes apply). There is no charge for invited Replies.

Authors submitting Research Articles or Review Articles are strongly encouraged to be as concise as possible. A surcharge may apply on very lengthy articles to cover the additional production costs; please contact the editorial office before submitting manuscripts in excess of 15,000 words.

Journal Contact Information

The contact information for the journal is as follows:

Editorial Office

Canadian Science Publishing

65 Auriga Drive, Suite 203
Ottawa, ON K2E 7W6 Canada

Fax: 613-656-9838


Sections & Subjects

During submission, authors will be asked to identify a primary manuscript subject, as well as a secondary manuscript subject for multidisciplinary papers.

Below are the broad subject areas currently covered by FACETS. “Sections” are indicated in bold. “Subjects” are listed below each section.

Please note that FACETS sections and subjects are broad categories that encompass a variety of specialties. Your specific field may not be included in the subject list but your manuscript likely fits within the coverage of one or more subjects. This broad approach helps to facilitate multi- and interdisciplinary submissions, and allows for maximum flexibility and inclusiveness.

  • Biological and Life Sciences
    • Anatomy and Biomechanics
    • Cell and Developmental Biology
    • Ecology and Evolution
    • Genetics and Genomics
    • Microbiology
    • Plant and Agricultural Sciences
    • Zoology
  • Biomedical and Health Sciences
    • Anatomy and Physiology
    • Clinical Sciences
    • Epidemiology
    • Mental Health
    • Neuroscience
    • Nutrition, Sport, and Exercise Sciences
    • Pharmacology
    • Psychology
  • Earth and Environmental Sciences
    • Atmospheric and Climate Sciences
    • Geosciences (includes Geophysics, Physical Geography, GIS)
    • Marine and Aquatic Sciences
  • Engineering, Technology, and Mathematics
    • Engineering
    • Technology (includes Computer and Information Sciences)
    • Mathematics and Statistics
  • Integrative Sciences
    • Conservation and Sustainability
    • Ethics
    • Public Health
    • Science and Policy
    • Science and Society
    • Science Communication
    • Science Education
  • Physical Sciences
    • Astronomical Sciences
    • Chemistry
    • Materials Science
    • Physics

Tips for Maximizing Discoverability (metadata)


Metadata is information that makes your article discoverable. It tells search engines what your article is about and helps determine what is displayed in response to a search query. You want to make sure that your metadata is rich and descriptive so that your article is at the top of the list in a search result.


Titles should be descriptive and unambiguously tell the reader what the article is about. Key words, terms, and phrases should be used to maximize the possibility of an internet crawler identifying the topic. Using plain, clear language is important, as figures of speech, humour, and jargon are not easily recognizable to electronic systems. If you want to incorporate humour, be sure that it is complemented with something descriptive.


Abstracts are more important than most people realize, and care should be taken when writing them. Because search engines look for duplication of terms, repeating keyword phrases in the title and abstract increases the chance that a paper will be found during an online search. Care should be taken, however, because excessive repetition of a term can cause a search engine to reject a web page. Abstracts should be detailed and descriptive, and should tell the reader exactly what the article is about, the context and methodology of the study, the results, conclusions, and why the study is important. Jargon should be minimized, and acronyms should be avoided when possible or defined when their use is necessary. Key words, terms, and phrases should again be used. No information that is not contained in the article should be included in the abstract. Remember that your abstract should entice the reader to want to read your full article!

Key Words

Key words should be strong indicators of the content of your article at a glance. Wherever possible use multi-word phrases rather than single-word key words. The key words you choose should be descriptive, informative, and be repeated in the title and abstract. Use words and phrases that you would use yourself to search for an article.

Plain Language Summaries

We encourage you to submit a plain language summary of your article in addition to your regular abstract. This summary should be concise, clear, and free of jargon. Aim to highlight why the work was done, how it was done, and what was discovered.

Upon publication, a plain language summary may be shared with our readers, journalists and the general public via social media, news feeds, newsletters and other means. With plain language summaries, we hope to reach a broader audience and encourage general interest in science as part of a greater science outreach strategy.

Manuscript Submission Information

Requirements for Submission

All submitted manuscripts must represent work that has not been published or submitted for publication elsewhere, and must meet all discipline-specific ethical requirements and standards.

Submissions must be clearly and concisely written in good English or French. Authors whose native language is not English or French should consult someone fluent in English or French prior to submission of the manuscript. Alternatively, a professional language-editing service can be used.

To facilitate publication, authors must check symbols, abbreviations, and technical terms for accuracy, consistency, and readability. Canadian Science Publishing maintains the right to preserve the technical quality of the Journal.

Authors are encouraged to follow the style and formatting requirements outlined in the Instructions to Authors in full prior to submission. Authors may choose to follow only minimum style and formatting instructions at submission (i.e., language quality, manuscript organization, manuscript length, page numbering, double-spacing, continuous line numbering, and general reference format). This will not affect the editorial decision. However, authors who follow the style and formatting instructions in full at submission will find the revision process easier.

English Language Improvement Service

Canadian Science Publishing (CSP) has partnered with Editage to offer pre-submission editing services to authors. The services offered by Editage will help authors, particularly those for whom English is not their first language, craft well-written manuscripts for submission to Canadian Science Publishing journals, making it easier for peer reviewers to assess the science of a manuscript and reducing the risk that a paper with good scientific content will be rejected because of a lack of clarity.

Please note that language editing does not guarantee that your manuscript will be sent out for peer review or be accepted for publication. Articles accepted for publication in a Canadian Science Publishing journal will still undergo a copy-editing process as part of the production process.

Editage is a leader in English-language editing, translation, and author education services and works closely with journal authors worldwide to improve their success in publication. Canadian Science Publishing authors get a special 15% discount on submissions made through this link.

See for more information.

TeX or LaTeX Files

If TeX or LaTeX files are submitted, please also upload a locally-generated PDF of your full manuscript. Please download the following instructions for details on how to submit TeX or LaTeX files:

New Manuscripts

Authors must submit manuscripts via the ScholarOne Manuscripts online submission and peer review system.


Authors may register at any time on the site, but should register only once. During registration, authors choose a username and a password. The security of manuscripts is protected by the username/password system.


Authors will be asked to input information pertaining to the authors and the manuscript, answer some questions, and upload the submission files. Note: author order in the published manuscript will be as indicated on the title page of the supplied manuscript.

Authors will also be asked to select a primary subject (required) and a secondary subject for multidisciplinary papers, if applicable (otherwise select “none”). See our subjects section for details on the areas covered. When first submitting a manuscript for peer review, low-resolution versions of figures should be uploaded to limit file size. Note: Captions and links do not need to be entered separately when uploading figure files in ScholarOne, as they should be in the manuscript text; leave those fields blank and continue with the submission once all your files have been uploaded.

Submitted manuscripts are evaluated by the Editorial Office for suitability and general compliance with these Instructions to Authors. Manuscripts that do not meet the minimum guidelines are returned to authors for corrections as “Unsubmitted Draft”.

Technical Support

For assistance, please contact: A ScholarOne user manual with full instructions is available here.

Acknowledgement of Submission

Authors receive an automated acknowledgement from the online system when they make a successful submission. If an acknowledgement email has not been received, it could mean the submission was unsuccessful and authors should log into their Author Center to re-open their submission process, or that the email address was entered incorrectly when the author set up his or her profile, or that the email was captured by the institution’s SPAM filter. If the latter is the case, please contact your IT administrator to allow these emails to proceed to your inbox.

Revised Manuscripts

The corresponding author will be contacted by email and asked to submit a revision; the process is very similar to the initial submission.

For revisions use the ”View and Respond to Decision Letter” section in ScholarOne to include comments to the previous reviewers (pasted or attached as a separate file) rather than the “Cover Letter” section. A highlighted or “track changes” copy of the resubmitted manuscript showing changes made should be included as a file upload, in addition to a clean copy of the revised manuscript. Please include “show changes” or “clean copy” in the file name, as appropriate.

Accepted Manuscripts

Submitting Production Files is the final step of the peer-review process. In ScholarOne, check that all author names appear as desired online and match what is on the title page of the manuscript. Check that the contact author in ScholarOne matches the corresponding (contact) author on the title page of the manuscript.

For accepted manuscripts, the corresponding author will be contacted to advise him or her of acceptance and to ask him or her to provide the final accepted manuscript file and all associated files for tables, figures, and files or repository links for supplementary material.

Text (including tables) should be provided in a word-processing format (any form of WordPerfect, Microsoft Word, TeX, or LaTeX).

All tables and equations are required to be in a workable format that can be physically manipulated (see How to organize your manuscript and Manuscript style guidelines).

For figures, see Preparation of graphic files.

Cover Letter and Author Response to Reviewers

Note that the “Cover Letter” section of ScholarOne should not repeat any information that is collected in the author questions in the “Details & Comments” section of ScholarOne.

Instead, use the “Cover Letter” to provide the following, as well as any additional information desired:

  • a statement describing how the work advances knowledge (required);

  • a statement indicating that the work is qualitative in nature, if appropriate (especially for the Integrative Sciences section).

For resubmissions use the “Cover letter” section in ScholarOne to include comments to the previous reviewers (pasted or attached as a separate file). A copy of the resubmitted manuscript showing changes (with highlighting and track changes) must be included as a file upload, in addition to a clean copy of the revised manuscript. Please include “show changes” or “clean copy” in the file names.

Data Availability & Archiving (Depositing Your Data in a Repository)

For all published articles reporting original research in FACETS it is encouraged to have the data used in the article available in a publicly accessible database at the time of publication. Authors must ensure that all reasonable steps necessary to protect the privacy of human research subjects have been taken, in accordance with appropriate legal guidelines.

  1. Author(s) are responsible for determining if they are required to deposit their data in a discipline-specific data repository, and for determining the copyright/licensing terms for data held in those repositories. Examples of repositories include, but are not limited to the following:

  2. If there is no discipline-specific data repository requirement, authors are encouraged to deposit their data in a general repository such as Dryad or Figshare. Information about Canadian institutional repositories can be found on the Canadian Association of Research Libraries (CARL) website.

Authors must indicate in the manuscript text where the data are deposited and provide DOIs and/or links to the data sets online prior to submitting the production files of the accepted paper to the online submission system, so that they can be included in the published manuscript.

Please also refer to the Supplementary material section.

Peer Review & Evaluation Process

Peer review is required for all submissions, apart from any editorial material that is clearly marked as such. In most cases the Editor-in-Chief will assign a Subject Editor, Guest Editor, or Associate Editor (i.e., handling Editor) who will invite confidential reviewers who are experts in the relevant field and are not part of the journal’s editorial staff. The handling Editor may use the reviewers suggested by the authors but is not limited to those suggestions.

Although the journal’s editors generally seek the advice of scientific peers, they may decline without review those manuscripts judged inappropriate for the journal. If the manuscript is accepted for review, the handling Editor will seek advice from a minimum of two reviewers selected for their knowledge of, and their experience in, the subject treated in the manuscript. Reviewers are invited, in confidence, to recommend on the suitability of the submission and provide comments for the authors and the Editors. The Subject Editor or Guest Editor, under the supervision of the Editor-in-Chief, retains full responsibility for all decisions regarding the manuscript.

Suggested reviewers: Authors should provide the first and last names of the reviewers in addition to their current email addresses. Qualified and eligible reviewers include other researchers in the field who are not in direct or indirect conflict of interest or competing interests with the submitted manuscript. Please also consider naming international reviewers in the list. Authors are invited to suggest reviewers who are competent to examine their manuscript, but the handling Editor is not limited to such suggestions. Reviewers are informed that they have received privileged documents for assessment of scientific merit and are expected to provide reasonable arguments to support their evaluations. Identities of reviewers will not be released to authors without the written consent of the reviewer.

Non-preferred reviewers: You may optionally enter the names of reviewers who you do not want to review your paper.

Publication Procedures


Prior to publication the Editorial Office checks all accepted manuscripts for conformation to the Instructions to Authors and to ensure that all necessary paperwork is present. Any areas that are identified as problematic will be addressed by the Editorial Office in consultation with the corresponding author. Once the Editorial Office has resolved any problems with the manuscript, the manuscript is moved forward to publication. The papers are prepared for publication by a professional copy-editor responsible for ensuring that the final published work is consistent in form and style.


An author’s proof and the copy-edited manuscript are sent to the corresponding author. Author’s proofs must be checked very carefully, as they will not be proofread by Canadian Science Publishing, and must be returned within 48 hours of receipt. The proof stage is not the time to make extensive corrections, additions, or deletions, and the cost of changes introduced at the proof stage and deemed to be excessive will be charged to the author. Questions concerning proofs should be addressed to the Journal Coordinator, Tanya Samman (613-656-9846 ext. 269; fax: 613-656-9838; email:


If reprints are desired, authors and other customers must contact the Editorial Office by email. The journal does not provide free reprints. Price is dependent on the number of manuscript pages, and reprints are sold in lots of 50 or 100. All reprints include the journal cover and are two staple stitch bound.

Correspondence with Canadian Science Publishing About Published Papers

Once the paper has been published, all future correspondence should be with Canadian Science Publishing (fax: 613-656-9838; email: Canadian Science Publishing may make editorial changes as required, but will not make substantive changes to the content of a paper after publication without consultation with the author and the Editors.

Ethics & Permissions

General Ethical Standards

The ethical standards expected of authors, reviewers, and editors are described in the Publishing Policy for FACETS (available here or upon request). Manuscripts must include descriptions of methods and specimens in sufficient detail to allow the work to be assessed or reproduced.

Duplicate & Prior Publication

The Editorial Board considers a paper not eligible for publication if most of the content of the paper (i) is under consideration for publication or is published in a journal, or book chapter; (ii) is under consideration for publication or is published in a conference proceeding or a government publication with a substantial circulation (distributed to 100 or more individuals over a wide area). Authors may post a copy of their submitted or accepted manuscript on their website, an institutional repository, a preprint server, or their funding body’s designated archive, provided that the draft is not amended once accepted for publication. We strongly encourage authors to insert hyperlinks from preprints etc. to the final published version on the FACETS website. Abstracts or extended abstracts related to conferences do not constitute prior publication. Extended abstracts are usually under 2000 words and do not include presentation of detailed tables and graphics of the results of the study.


Plagiarism (publishing a substantial portion of one’s own previously published research results without acknowledgement of such republication or using work published by another author without attribution) is a serious offence. Because Canadian Science Publishing is committed to combating plagiarism, it participates in CrossCheck. CrossCheck is a multi-publisher initiative to screen content for originality using the software iThenticate, which compares submitted manuscripts against the CrossCheck database of scholarly literature and detects instances of overlapping and similar text. You can find out more about CrossCheck here.

Assurance of Authorship

The corresponding author will be asked to affirm that all of the authors have read and approved the manuscript. In addition, the corresponding author should ensure that all individuals listed as authors have made a substantive creative contribution to the work. Clerical or mechanical contributions or provision of financial support are not grounds for ascribing authorship but may instead be acknowledged in the “Acknowledgements” section of the manuscript. Conversely, all those, regardless of status, who have made a creative contribution to the generation or analysis of the data are entitled to authorship.

Conflict of Interest & Disclosure

The Editorial Board recognizes that authors and peer reviewers may have real or perceived conflicts of interest arising from intellectual, personal, or financial circumstances of their research. Submitted manuscripts should include full disclosure of funding sources for the research and an explanation of any real or perceived conflicts of interest that may arise during the peer-review process should be included in the appropriate area in ScholarOne during submission. Failure to disclose such conflicts may lead to refusal of a submitted manuscript.

Experiments Involving Humans or Animals

All authors, regardless of their country of origin, who describe experiments on vertebrate animals are required to give assurance in the Materials and Methods section of the manuscript that the animals were cared for in accordance with the Guide to the Care and Use of Experimental Animals (Vol. 1, 2nd ed., 1993, and Vol. 2, 1984, available from the Canadian Council on Animal Care, 190 O’Connor St., Suite 800, Ottawa, ON K2P 2R3, Canada, or on their website) or the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (1996, published by National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20055, USA), and that their use of animals was reviewed and approved by the appropriate animal care review committee at the institution(s) where the experiments were carried out.

Authors who describe experiments on humans are required to provide assurance in the manuscript that appropriate standards for human experimentation have been followed, that the experiment has been reviewed and approved by their institution’s ethics review committee, and that the subjects have given informed consent prior to participating in the study.

Endangered Species

Authors must certify that research involving endangered species was conducted in conformance with all applicable laws.

Field Research Permits

Authors must include the research permit or licence number from the appropriate agency if it was required to access field areas (e.g., Scientific Research Licences or Wildlife Research Permits in Canadian Territories).

Archaeology & Palaeontology Research

Artifacts or specimens described or figured must be deposited in an accessible, permanent repository (i.e., a public museum or similar institution). Manuscripts involving artifacts or specimens that do not meet this criterion are not eligible for publication in FACETS. FACETS will also not publish research on artifacts or specimens that were exported or obtained illegally or without the necessary permission.

Obtaining Use Permissions from a Third Party

There are several instances when an author must seek permission from a third party before the publication of his or her paper can proceed:

  • Whenever a manuscript contains material (tables, figures, charts, etc.) that has been previously published and is protected by copyright, it is the obligation of the author to secure written permission from the holder of the copyright to reproduce the material for both print and electronic formats.

  • Proper attribution must be given to the source of map data. Permission requirements can generally be found on the website of the map source, and attribution information generally appears on the bottom corner of the map. For example, see the attribution guidelines for Google Maps. Please provide the attribution information in the figure caption if it is not clearly visible on the map.

  • If a person pictured in a photo is identifiable, his or her permission is required to publish the photo. The person must be asked to sign a letter or form allowing Canadian Science Publishing to publish the photo.

  • If rights to any photograph or artwork are not held by one of the authors of a paper, then permission from the holder of copyright (e.g., photographer or artist) is required to reproduce the material.

Permission forms are available from the Editorial Office, if needed.

Photo Manipulation

Authors should be aware that the journal considers digital images to be data. Hence, digital images submitted should contain the same data as the original image captured. Any manipulation using graphical software should be identified in the “Materials and methods” section of the manuscript, including both the name of the software and the techniques used to enhance or change the graphic in any way. Such a disclaimer ensures that the methods are repeatable and ensures the scientific integrity of the work. The removal of artefacts or any (nonintegral) data held in the image is discouraged.

How to Organize Your Manuscript

General Guidelines

Number all pages in the manuscript file, starting with the title page (including tables and figures, if uploaded as part of the main manuscript document).

All text should be double-spaced, including references, and have continuous line numbers in the left margin.

Submitted manuscripts should be organized as follows: title page, abstract (if applicable), key words, plain language summary (optional), text, acknowledgements, references, table captions, figure captions, labeled tables in numerical order, labeled figures in numerical order, and supplementary material. Limit manuscript heading sections and subsections to five levels. Heading and subheading levels should not be numbered, but must be distinct and clearly indicated in the manuscript text.

Title Page

Titles should be informative but brief. Titles should contain important descriptive phrases that relate to the topic and key result. See also our Tips for maximizing discoverability section.

Authors’ full names, affiliations, and full addresses including email addresses should be included on the title page. Each author on the list must have an affiliation. The affiliation includes department, university, or organizational affiliation and its location, including city, state/province (if applicable), and country. If an author has multiple affiliations, enter all affiliations on the title page only. In the submission system, enter only the preferred or primary affiliation. This list of authors on the title page should match that provided in the submission system.

The corresponding author(s) should be indicated on the title page of the manuscript text. The corresponding author listed in the manuscript text should be the same as the corresponding (contact) author designated in the online submission system. Note: author order in the published manuscript will be as indicated on the title page of the supplied manuscript.


An abstract is required for every contribution except Comments/Replies and Editorials, and should consist of one paragraph that contains accurate descriptive words of the content. It should be no more than 200 words and should appear on a separate page of the submitted manuscript. References should not be cited in the abstract. See also our Tips for maximizing discoverability section.

Key Words

A maximum of six key words or phrases should be placed directly below the abstract. See also our Tips for maximizing discoverability section.

Plain Language Summary

Authors are encouraged to submit a plain language summary of their article in addition to the regular abstract. This summary should be concise, clear, and free of jargon. The plain language summary should be uploaded as a separate file, using the “Plain Language Summary” file upload type in ScholarOne. It can be uploaded during initial submission, when a revision is submitted, or after acceptance when production files are submitted. See also the Tips for maximizing discoverability section.


The introduction should be limited to the scope, purpose, and rationale of the study. An introduction generally need not exceed 500 words.

Materials & Methods

Experimental and computational methods must be sufficiently detailed to permit reproduction of the work, but must be concise and avoid lengthy descriptions of known procedures; the latter should be specified by appropriate references. Experimental protocols should include appropriate controls, and control data should be provided to allow comparison with the experimental results.

Sources of biological materials, experimental methods, geographical locations, and statistical methods should be described. Sources of commercially available laboratory or field equipment and fine chemicals should be indicated in parentheses; list the company name, city, and country.


The results should be as comprehensive as possible but limited to answers to the questions posed in the purpose of the work. Material supplementary to the text can be associated with the published manuscript on the journal website or in a recognized repository and referenced in the text (see our Supplementary material section).

Discussion & Conclusions

The discussion should be limited to presenting the main contributions of the study and interpreting particular findings, comparing them with those of other workers. The Discussion can be combined with the Results section (as Results and Discussion). The inclusion of a separate Conclusions section is at the discretion of the author(s).



The journal uses The Harvard citation style (Author and Date system) for references.

In-text Citations

Each reference must be cited in the text using the surnames of the authors and the year, for example, “(Walpole 1985)” or “Green and Brown (1990)”. If there are three or more authors, the citation should give the name of the first author followed by et al. (e.g., “Green et al. 1991”). If references occur that are not uniquely identified by the authors’ names and year, use “a”, “b”, “c”, etc., after the year (e.g., “Green 1983a, 1983b” or “Green and Brown 1988a, 1988b”) for the text citation and in the reference list.

Presentation of the Reference List

The reference list must be double-spaced and placed at the end of the text. References must be listed in alphabetical order according to the name of the first author and not numbered. References with the same first author are listed in the following order: (i) papers with one author only in chronological order; (ii) papers with dual authorship follow, listed in alphabetical order; (iii) papers with three or more authors are arranged chronologically. Use “et al.” after six authors within a reference citation in the reference list.

Guidelines on Reference List Format

The Harvard style can vary in minor features such as punctuation, capitalisation, abbreviations, and the use of italics. References should follow the form outlined below and used in current issues of the journal. Note that the names of serials are not abbreviated in the reference list for FACETS.

Examples of bibliographic citations (for additional examples refer to this guide)

Heaman LM, Erdmer P, and Owen JV. 2002. U–Pb geochronologic constraints on the crustal evolution of the Long Range Inlier, Newfoundland. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 39(5): 845–865. doi:10.1139/e02-015.


Neuendorf KKE, Mehl JP Jr, and Jackson JA. 2011. Glossary of Geology. 5th edition. American Geological Institute, Alexandria, Virginia. 800 p.

Conference Proceedings

Jagoutz E, Palme H, Baddenhausen H, Blum K, Cendales M, Dreibus G, Spettel B, Lorenz V, and Wänke H. 1979. The abundances of major, minor and trace elements in the earth’s mantle as derived from primitive ultramafic nodules. In Proceedings of the 10th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, Texas, 19–23 March 1979. Vol. 2. pp. 2031–2050.

Chapter / Edited Volume Contribution

Colpron M, Nelson JL, and Murphy DC. 2006. A tectonostratigraphic framework for the pericratonic terranes of the northern Canadian Cordillera. In Paleozoic evolution and metallogeny of pericratonic terranes at the Ancient Pacific Margin of North America, Canadian and Alaskan Cordillera. Edited by M Colpron and JL Nelson. Geological Association of Canada Special Paper 45. pp. 1–23.

Report / Grey Literature

Escayola M, Murphy DC, Garuti G, Zaccarini F, Proenza JA, Aiglsperger T, and van Staal C. 2012. First finding of Pt–Pd-rich chromitite and platinum group element mineralization in southwest Yukon mantle peridotite complexes. Yukon Geological Survey, Open File 2012-12. 18 p.

Thesis / Dissertation

Fecova K. 2009. Conuma River and Leagh Creek intrusive complexes: windows into mid-crustal levels of the Jurassic Bonanza Arc, Vancouver Island, British Columbia. M.Sc. thesis, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia. 221 p.

Electronic Citation

Quinion MB. 1998. Citing online sources: advice on online citation formats [online]: Available from

Tables & Figures

Organize tables and figures to facilitate comparisons, grouping related data in as few tables and figures as feasible. As far as possible, make the tables and figures clear without reference to the text.

Table and figure captions should be listed before the tables and figures in the submitted manuscript. Component figures must be combined into one figure, and parts of figures should be indicated with lowercase italic roman letters (e.g., “Fig. 1a”). In the caption, figure parts are referred to using italic lowercase roman letters in parentheses, e.g., “(a)”.

Tables and figures should be numbered in Arabic numerals in the order cited in the text and each should have a brief title. Type each table on a separate sheet. Table footnotes should be indicated by lowercase italic superscript letters.

Tables must be in an editable table format (preferred), an Excel spreadsheet format, or typed into the text. Tables (and equations) must not be submitted in *.gif, *.jpg, or other picture formats (neither within the manuscript nor as separate files).

For figure formatting requirements, refer to the Preparation of graphic files and Preparation of multimedia files sections that follow.


FACETS does not publish appendices; instead, material that is not part of the article itself can be submitted as Supplementary Material (refer to the Supplementary material section that follows).

Supplementary Material

Supplementary material consists of additional tables and figures (including maps), detailed calculations, and data sets that are relevant to but not essential for understanding or evaluating the paper, and are not published as part of the article itself.

This material is not edited, converted, or scanned, and will appear exactly as submitted. This prevents any errors from being inadvertently introduced during file manipulation. Thus, supplementary material will be made available in its native file format when the article is published. Supplementary tables and figures should be numbered consecutively, but separately from those published in the paper (e.g., Fig. S1, Table S1, etc.). All supplementary material should be mentioned or referred to within the main manuscript text.

Authors can submit supplementary material files through ScholarOne along with their manuscript files, but are strongly encouraged to deposit them in a suitable repository instead to ensure long-term preservation and retrievability. DataCite provides a tool for finding suitable repositories.

If authors deposit their supplementary materials in an online repository, they must indicate where, and provide DOIs and/or links to the material prior to submitting their final production files so that this information can be included in the final published manuscript.

When submitting supplementary material via ScholarOne, use the “Supplementary material” file upload type and name the files “Supplementary Material 1”, “Supplementary Material 2”, “Supplementary Material 3”, etc.

Manuscript Style & Formatting Guidelines

Preparation of Graphic Files

When first submitting a manuscript for peer review, low-resolution versions of figures should be uploaded to limit file size. High-resolution files will be requested for the production files. Note: Captions and links do not need to be entered separately when uploading figure files in ScholarOne, as they should be in the manuscript text; leave those fields blank and continue with the submission once all your files have been uploaded.

Illustrations, figures, and other artwork (such as multimedia) must be supplied in an electronic format.

If electronic files are not available or if those supplied are inadequate for reproduction, hard-copy originals of adequate quality, either previously supplied or requested from the author, will be scanned. Note that the scanner will easily reproduce flaws (e.g., correction fluid, smudges).

Remember that the more complex your artwork becomes, the greater the possibility for problems at output time. Avoid complicated textures and shadings, especially in vector illustration programs; this increases the chance for a poor-quality final product.

All figures should be submitted at the desired published size. For figures with several parts (a, b, c, d, etc.) created using the same software application, assemble them into one file rather than sending several files. Name all figure files using the following format., (where “xxx” is the file extension, e.g., “ai”, “eps”).

Only Windows or Macintosh versions of True Type or Type 1 fonts should be used (e.g., Times New Roman, Arial, Tahoma). Do not use bitmap or nonstandard fonts.

Fills and outlines should be greater than 10% black.

Canadian Science Publishing strongly urges authors to send their figure files for journal production as one of the following file types: *.eps, *ai, *.tif, *.pdf, *.jpg, *.doc, or *.xls. These file types can be created by exporting or saving within most common software programs to create the figure file.

  • Do not use any compression to *.tif files (e.g., LZW) when saving or exporting, and please use the D_no OPI or High Quality Print option in Adobe Acrobat Distiller, when creating a figure *.pdf file.

  • If you are submitting a *.jpg file, it must have a minimum resolution of 300 dpi and be saved with "maximum quality" at final size.

  • Embed imported parts (do not link them).

For Bitmap (raster) files the proper resolution should be used when submitting bitmap artwork. The minimum requirements for resolution are 600 dpi for line art, 1200 dpi for fine lines (line art with fine lines or shading), 300 dpi for halftones and colour, and 600 dpi for combinations (halftones with lettering outside the photo area).

All colour files submitted must be as CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow, and black). These colours are used in full-colour printing. RGB graphics (red, green, and blue; colours specifically used to produce an image on a monitor) will not print correctly.

Vector files are image files produced using elements such as lines and shapes. Typically these files are used for line drawings.

Bitmaps inside vector files: Bitmaps can be imported into vector/draw applications only for the purpose of adding and overlaying information, lines, text, etc. Bitmaps should not be resized, cropped, rotated, or otherwise manipulated after importing.

List of accepted formats for journal production
PC Software (current and legacy versions) File Extensions (Save As or Export)
Adobe Acrobat *.pdf
Adobe Illustrator *.ai, *.eps
Adobe Photoshop *.tif, *.jpg
MS Excel *.xls, *.xlsx
MS Word *.doc, *.docx

Preparation of Multimedia Files

The journal allows authors to incorporate audio clips, video clips, animated *.gif files, *.ppt presentations etc. into their paper; these are published in the online version of the journal, adding a dimension to the paper that cannot be achieved in the printed version. The journal can also link to associated YouTube videos, webinars etc., subject to approval.

At submission, please clearly indicate in your manuscript text where there is an associated media file. Provide the name of the corresponding media file.

  • A caption or description of the content of the media file is required (similar to a typical figure caption).

  • Videos must be accompanied by a still image. This will be published on the website and will serve as a link from the text to the full video file.

  • All videos should be submitted at the desired reproduction size and length. Videos must be no larger than 5 MB and no longer than 60 seconds.

  • To meet accessibility requirements, authors are asked to provide a written transcript of the video dialogue (as *.txt).

  • All changes to the multimedia files are the responsibility of the author.

  • Canadian Science Publishing will not edit multimedia files.

List of accepted formats for journal production
Video Software File Extensions (Save As or Export)
MS Windows Media Player *.avi, *.wmv, *.mpeg, *.mpg
Quicktime (PC or Mac) *.qt, *.avi, *.wmv, *.mpeg, *.mpg


Spelling should follow that of Webster's Third New International Dictionary or the Oxford English Dictionary. Authors are responsible for consistency in spelling.

Units of Measurement

SI units (Système international d’unités) should be used or SI equivalents should be given. For practical reasons, some exceptions to SI units could be allowed.


If applicable, a list of symbols should be provided after the reference list.

Abbreviations & Acronyms

Abbreviations and acronyms should be defined when they are first mentioned in the text. Alternatively, if used extensively in the manuscript a list of abbreviations and acronyms can be included after the references (following the list of symbols, if applicable). If an abbreviation is widely recognized in the field and has been used for some time, it may be used without definition (e.g., ANOVA, PCR, and EDTA). To minimize confusion, please avoid the creation of new abbreviations. Abbreviate terms denoting units of mass and measurement in the text only when they are preceded by numerals.


All displayed equations should be represented in true editable format, preferably using a math editor (MathType); however, authors should insert simple inline equations in text without using MathType. When inserting symbols from the “Symbol” palette in MS Word, authors should use the “normal text” or “Symbol” fonts. Symbols should be inserted using MathType ONLY if they cannot be found in the "Symbol" palette under one of those two fonts.


Authors submitting manuscripts of a survey or taxonomic nature are required to deposit representative specimens in a recognized depository. Prior to commencing a study, authors should make arrangements with a suitable recognized depository or a provincial museum. The catalogue or accession numbers should be included in the manuscript or, if necessary, added at the proof stage.

Botanical & Mycological Specimens

As of January 1, 2012 and in accordance with the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), Melbourne Code (2012), the publication date (date of record) is the date that the final paginated version of record is posted on the journal’s website. Authors are encouraged but not required to (i) place material in multiple trusted online digital repositories, (ii) publish in publications that are archived, (iii) deposit printed copies containing the journal’s ISSN (2371-1671) to libraries in more than one area of the world and preferably in different continents, and (iv) if the new taxon being described is a fungus, then a MycoBank number obtained from MycoBank must be cited within the text of the manuscript (e.g., Description section). The MycoBank number can be added at the proof stage.

Zoological Specimens

As of January 1, 2012 and in accordance with the amendments to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN), 4th ed., the publication date (date of record) is the date that the final paginated version of record is posted on the journal’s website. Authors must (i) register new taxonomic descriptions with ZooBank and obtain a ZooBank number, (ii) cite the ZooBank number within the text of the manuscript (e.g., Description section), and (iii) provide the journal’s ISSN (2371-1671), volume, issue, and page range of the published work to ZooBank. The ZooBank number can be added at the proof stage.


Nomenclature should follow the rules established by international authoritative bodies such as the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB), the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), the Chemical Abstracts Services (CAS), the Committee on Nomenclature, Terminology, and Symbols of the American Chemical Society, and the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN).

As a general guide for biological terms, Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (7th ed., 2006) published by the Council of Science Editors, USA, is recommended.


The use of genotypic and phenotypic designations should follow the recommendations of Demerec et al. (Genetics, 54: 61–74, 1966). (i) Phenotypic designations must be used when mutant loci have not been identified or mapped. Phenotypic designations generally consist of three-letter symbols, not italicized, with the first letter capitalized. Superscript letters may be used (e.g., Strs for streptomycin sensitivity). (ii) Genotypic designations are composed of three-letter locus symbols written in lower case italics. Wild-type alleles are indicated by positive superscripts (e.g., his+). If several loci control related functions, they are distinguished by italicized capital letters following the gene symbols (e.g., hisA, hisB). Mutation sites are indicated by putting the serial isolation numbers (allele numbers) after the locus symbol. Deviations from normal use should be defined. For more detailed information about the symbols in current use, consult reviews by Bachmann (Microbiol. Rev. 47: 180–230, 1983) for Escherichia coli K-12; Sanderson and Roth (Microbiol. Rev. 52: 485–532, 1988) for Salmonella spp.; and Henner and Hoch (Microbiol. Rev. 44: 57–82, 1980) for Bacillus subtilis.


Nomenclature should follow the rules recommended by the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB) Committee of Editors of Biochemical Journals, with support of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).


The International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (International Association for Plant Taxonomy) should be followed. Note that the first occurrence of a species name in a manuscript is presented with the genus written in full and the authority name(s) included (e.g., Populus angustifolia James). In subsequent mentions of the same species, the genus is abbreviated to the first letter and no authority name(s) is listed (e.g., P. angustifolia). To avoid confusion, when different genera share the same first letter, the genera are written in full throughout the manuscript. Genera are always written in full at the beginning of a sentence.


Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, Sections A, B, C, D, E, F, and H, Pergamon Press, London, 1979; Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry, Butterworth, London, 1971; Quantities, Units and Symbols in Physical Chemistry, Blackwell, London, 1987. Tentative recommendations exist for organometallic nomenclature, IUPAC Information Bulletin No. 31, 1973; for stereochemical designations, J. Org. Chem. 35, 2849, 1970; and for steroids, J. Org. Chem. 34, 1517, 1969. Although tentative IUPAC rules have been published for carbohydrate nomenclature (Biochemistry, 10, 3983, 1971), the British–American nomenclature is recommended (J. Org. Chem. 28, 281, 1963), until the IUPAC rules become definitive. For nomenclature not covered by international convention, the usage of the American Chemical Society should be followed, for example, The Naming and Indexing of Chemical Compounds (Introduction to Chemical Abstracts Subject Index 56, IN, 1962). Rigid adherence to nomenclature rules is not expected each time a compound is mentioned in a manuscript, but the approved names should be given at least once, preferably in an early part of the manuscript.


Refer to Enzyme Nomenclature (1992): Recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB) (Academic Press, San Diego, Calif.)


Should follow the American Geological Institute’s Glossary of Geology (1997) except where superceded by international recommendations, such as those of the International Union of Geological Sciences’ Subcommission on the Systematics of Igneous Rocks and of the International Mineralogical Association on the nomenclature of minerals. Abbreviations for mineral names should follow R. Kretz (American Mineralogist, 68: 277–279, 1983) and should be summarized in a footnote or figure caption. Stratigraphic nomenclature should follow the North American Stratigraphic Code (American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 67: 841–875, 1983). Canadian lithostratigraphic units are summarized in the regional Lexicons of Canadian Stratigraphy published by the Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists.

Geological Time

Only formal time-stratigraphic and geologic-time units should be capitalized, in accordance with the definitions established by the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS). New 14C dates reported in manuscripts must include the laboratory reference number.

Geotechnical Symbols

Such symbols shall conform to those recommended by the Metric Subcommittee of the Canadian Geotechnical Society (Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 17: 89–96, 1980).


Authors are required to use currently accepted names for microorganisms as indicated in the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria (1990 revision). A new name is not validly published until a note containing the name is also published in the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. Microorganisms and viruses should be given strain designations consisting of letters (usually two) followed by serial numbers. It is generally advisable to use the worker’s initials or a descriptive symbol of locate or laboratory. Each new isolate will then be given a new (serial) designation (AB1, AB2, etc.). Genotypic and phenotypic symbols should not be included.

Transposable Elements & Plasmids

Nomenclature of transposable elements (transposons, Mu) should follow Campbell et al. (Gene, 5: 197–206, 1979), and for plasmids, should follow Novick et al. (Bacteriol. Rev. 40: 168–189, 1976).


In the genetic nomenclature of bacterial viruses (bacteriophages), no distinctions are made between genotype and phenotype. Genetic symbols may be one, two, or three letters.


Authors are required to follow the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (4th ed., 1999). Specifically, authors should provide the authority name(s) and date for all genus- and species-level taxa at the first mention within the Abstract and within the text (but not in the title). In subsequent mentions of the same species, the genus is abbreviated to the first letter and no author name(s) or date is listed (e.g., “S. plicata”). Genera are always written in full at the beginning of a sentence. In the case of changed combinations, the authorship and date should be set in parentheses. For example, “Ascidia plicata Lesueur, 1823” is cited as “Styela plicata (Lesueur, 1823)” when transferred to the genus Styela.

Manuscript Submission Checklist

  • List of authors, affiliations, and contact information is complete and correct

  • One author has been designated as corresponding author

  • Manuscript title is short and informative

  • The abstract (if applicable) can be read as stand-alone text, and does not exceed 200 words

  • Key words describing the article have been provided in the manuscript

  • Relevant subject area(s) have been identified and selected

  • The manuscript file(s) contains all essential sections required for the manuscript type and content (e.g., Title, Abstract, Key Words, Plain language summary (optional), text, Acknowledgements, References, lists of Symbols / Abbreviations / Acronyms, Tables with captions above, Figure captions, labeled Figures, Supplementary Material)

  • All references mentioned in the References list are cited in the text, and vice versa

  • The submission meets at least the following minimum formatting requirements:

    • language quality

    • manuscript organization

    • manuscript length

    • page numbering

    • double-spacing

    • continuous line numbering

    • general reference format

  • A statement of the significance/value of the work is given in the cover letter with an emphasis on how the work contributes to advancing knowledge.

  • Artwork source files have been provided at the appropriate size and resolution (low-resolution versions of figures should be uploaded at initial submission to limit file size)

  • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from all other sources

  • All ethical requirements and standards have been met, and are detailed in the manuscript

  • All manuscript files and supplementary material files (if applicable) have been uploaded

  • DOIs and/or links to repository information have been provided in the manuscript (if applicable)

  • All information provided online in ScholarOne matches that in the manuscript files